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Scientific Studies and Papers

Stock image of a therapist and their client
Stock image of a doctor doing research

Last updated: April 26, 2024

Note: to limit what is here and give credence to the content, only studies with multiple professionals or a single professional with peer reviews noted that are also posted on a recognized medical site will be included in this list. In some cases, there are news articles written that summarize the findings in more plan language. In those cases, I will link to the article only if it links to the official study or has a viable footnote reference to the appropriate medical site.

The World Professional Association of Transgender Health (WPATH) Standards of Care (SOC) is an internationally recognized document where leading medical and mental health professionals come together to determine appropriate levels of care. This document has 68 pages of referenced studies. Rather than copy the exhaustive list to this page for Healthcare, I will link to the document to have that vast compilation included here.

Youth Healthcare

February 12, 2024Adolescent neurocognitive development and decision-making abilities regarding gender-affirming care
February 9, 2024Changes in Gender Dysphoria, Interpersonal Minority Stress, and Mental Health Among Transgender Youth After One Year of Hormone Therapy
December 13, 2023Association of Pubertal Blockade at Tanner 2/3 With Psychosocial Benefits in Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth at Hormone Readiness Assessment
December 1, 2023Rapid-Onset Gender Dysphoria Is Not a Recognized Mental Health Diagnosis
September 7, 2023Early Access to Testosterone Therapy in Transgender and Gender-Diverse Adults Seeking Masculinization
June 12, 2023Access to gender-affirming hormones during adolescence and mental health outcomes among transgender adults
April 6, 2023Associations Among Gender-Affirming Hormonal Interventions, Social Support, and Transgender Adolescents’ Mental Health
March 2023Study on Gender Reassignment Procedures on Minors (State of Louisiana)
January 19, 2023Psychosocial Functioning in Transgender Youth after 2 Years of Hormones
December 6, 2022Continuation of gender-affirming hormones in transgender people starting puberty suppression in adolescence: a cohort study in the Netherlands
November 2022Efficacy and safety of medical treatment in the clinical management of adolescents with gender dysphoria (gd): a prospective follow-up study
August 16, 2022Legislation restricting gender-affirming care for transgender youth: Politics eclipse healthcare
July 2, 2022Scientific Misinformation and Gender Affirming Care: Tools for Providers on the Front Lines
April 1, 2022Association of gender-affirming hormone therapy with depression, thoughts of suicide, and attempted suicide among transgender and nonbinary youth
February 1, 2022Mental Health Outcomes in Transgender and Nonbinary Youths Receiving Gender-Affirming Care
December 1, 2021Association of Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy With Depression, Thoughts of Suicide, and Attempted Suicide Among Transgender and Nonbinary Youth
August 18, 2021Mental healthcare utilization of transgender youth before and after affirming treatment
July 17, 2021Testosterone treatment, internalizing symptoms, and body image dissatisfaction in transgender boys
March 31, 2021Factors Leading to “Detransition” Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis
February 2, 2021Short-term outcomes of pubertal suppression in a selected cohort of 12 to 15 year old young people with persistent gender dysphoria in the UK
October 1, 2020Mental Health and Timing of Gender-Affirming Care 
May 27, 2020Psychological Functioning in Transgender Adolescents Before and After Gender-Affirmative Care Compared With Cisgender General Population Peers
April 30, 2020Longitudinal impact of gender-affirming endocrine intervention on the mental health and well-being of transgender youths: preliminary results
April 2020Body Dissatisfaction and Mental Health Outcomes of Youth on Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy
March 3, 2020Psychosocial assessment in transgender adolescents
February 27, 2020Identify, Engage, Understand: Supporting Transgender Youth in an Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital
February 1, 2020Pubertal Suppression for Transgender Youth and Risk of Suicidal Ideation
2020Pubertal suppression for transgender youth and risk of suicidal ideation.
November 25, 2019Adolescent development and psychosocial functioning after starting cross-sex hormones for gender dysphoria
2019Well-being and suicidality among transgender youth after gender-affirming hormones.
October 1, 2018Understanding Pediatric Patients Who Discontinue Gender-Affirming Hormonal Interventions
October 1, 2018Ensuring Comprehensive Care and Support for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Children and Adolescents
November 12, 2015Psychological support, puberty suppression, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with gender dysphoria
September 8, 2014Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment.
August 8, 2011Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: A prospective follow‐up study.

General Healthcare

April 23, 2024A Systematic Review of Patient Regret After Surgery- A Common Phenomenon in Many Specialties but Rare Within Gender-Affirmation Surgery
December 27, 2023Postoperative Regret Among Transgender and Gender-Diverse Recipients of Gender-Affirming Surgery
September 7, 2023Early Access to Testosterone Therapy in Transgender and Gender-Diverse Adults Seeking MasculinizationA Randomized Clinical Trial
August 9, 2023Long-Term Regret and Satisfaction With Decision Following Gender-Affirming Mastectomy
July 2023Intersex people’s perspectives on affirming healthcare practices: A qualitative study
May 29, 2023Comparison of the Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Estradiol Regimens as Part of Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy
February 2023Age-related Outcomes of Chest Masculinization Surgery: A Single-surgeon Retrospective Cohort Study
January 24, 2023Regret after Gender Affirming Surgery – A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Multifaceted Patient Experience
January 17, 2023Successful restoration of spermatogenesis following gender-affirming hormone therapy in transgender women
November 24, 2022Protecting Transgender Health and Challenging Science Denialism in Policy
October 1, 2022Long-term Outcomes After Gender-Affirming Surgery: 40-Year Follow-up Study
August 18, 2022Continuation of Gender-affirming Hormones Among Transgender Adolescents and Adults
July 1, 2022Understanding and Supporting Patients With Dynamic Desires for Gender-Affirming Medical Interventions
February 25, 2022A Multipronged, Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Mental Health Among Transgender and Gender-Diverse Youth
January 16, 2022Prostatic metaplasia of the vagina in transmasculine individuals
January 12, 2022Access to gender-affirming hormones during adolescence and mental health outcomes among transgender adults
April 28, 2021Association Between Gender-Affirming Surgeries and Mental Health Outcomes
March 9, 2021Regret after Gender-affirmation Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prevalence
October 4, 2019Reduction in Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Transgender Individuals After Gender-Affirming Surgeries: A Total Population Study

Conversion Therapy

April 11, 2022Minnesota Dept of Health: Summary of Findings: A Review of Scientific Evidence of Conversion Therapy
March 7, 2022Humanistic and Economic Burden of Conversion Therapy Among LGBTQ Youths in the United States
July 9, 2021“Conversion Therapy” Experiences in Their Social Contexts: A Qualitative Study of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and Expression Change Efforts in Canada
August 2020Self-Reported Conversion Efforts and Suicidality Among US LGBTQ Youths and Young Adults, 2018
September 11, 2019Association Between Recalled Exposure to Gender Identity Conversion Efforts and Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults


December 2022The clinical irrelevance of “desistance” research for transgender and gender creative youth
July 13, 2022Gender Identity 5 Years After Social Transition 
May 2021Factors Leading to “Detransition” Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis
July 2018Dynamic Gender Presentations: Understanding Transition and “De-Transition” Among Transgender Youth

Gender Identity/Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria/Social Contagion

June 2023Age of Realization and Disclosure of Gender Identity Among Transgender Adults
August 3, 2022Sex Assigned at Birth Ratio Among Transgender and Gender Diverse Adolescents in the United States
June 7, 2022About 5% of young adults in the U.S. say their gender is different from their sex assigned at birth
November 15, 2021Do Clinical Data from Transgender Adolescents Support the Phenomenon of “Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria”?
December 10, 2019Similarity in transgender and cisgender children’s gender development
April 22, 2019Methodological Critique of Littman’s (2018) Parental-Respondents Accounts of “Rapid-Onset Gender Dysphoria”
March 29, 2019Predicting Early-Childhood Gender Transitions

Restroom/Locker Room Use

June 19, 2021School Restroom and Locker Room Restrictions and Sexual Assault Risk Among Transgender Youth
July 23, 2018Gender Identity Nondiscrimination Laws in Public Accommodations: a Review of Evidence Regarding Safety and Privacy in Public Restrooms, Locker Rooms, and Changing Rooms


2021The relationship between religious practices and beliefs and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among transgender and gender diverse adults.


March 13, 2024Strength, power and aerobic capacity of transgender athletes: a cross-sectional study
November 2023Exploring gender euphoria in a sample of transgender and gender diverse patients at two U.S. urban community health centers
June 27, 2023Transgender Identity and Suicide Attempts and Mortality in Denmark
March 17, 2023Age of Realization and Disclosure of Gender Identity Among Transgender Adults
January 12, 2023Transgender Women Athletes and Elite Sport: A Scientific Review
August 3, 2022Sex Assigned at Birth Ratio Among Transgender and Gender Diverse Adolescents in the United States
July 27, 2021Rising shares of U.S. adults know someone who is transgender or goes by gender-neutral pronouns
2021Americans’ Support for Key LGBTQ Rights Continues to Tick Upward: Findings from the 2021 American Values Atlas
January 25, 2019Transgender Identity and Experiences of Violence Victimization, Substance Use, Suicide Risk, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among High School Students — 19 States and Large Urban School Districts, 2017
Mark 1, 2016Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities